1.1. Maize Production
Maize is the main food crop of Tanzania averaging 4.5 million metric tons in 2010/2011 seasons Tanzania is endowed with more than 3.3 million hectares land with suitable climate (medium-high elevation) for the production of specialty maize that commands high prices on the world market.
The current average yield per hectare is between 1.2 ton/ha (MOAFSC statistics 2011/12- see below table).) and 2.0 tons. (FAOSTAT 2012). Tanzania has the capacity to produce 1.3 – 1.5 metric tons per hectare annually if small-scale farmers were to adopt improved farming practices. Maize production has been increasing from year to year due to priority set by the government.(see table below).
|Export in (MT)||0||0||0||50000||50000||15000||44690|
Source: Maendeleo ya Kilimo na Ushirika kwa kipindi cha Miaka 50 ya Uhuru kwa Tanzania Bara (1961-2011) and FAOStat 2012/13, Copyright 2011, Agriculture and Trade Opportunities for Tanzania, working paper , Dcember 2011, United Nations University, UNU-WIDER Food Security, IFPRI,www.foodsecurityportal.org/tanzania.
Maize production in Tanzania has been increasing from year to year due to priority has been provided by the government Tanzania is endowed with more than 3,3 million hectares of lands suitable for maize production. Increase in yield are mainly caused by amount of farm inputs, technology and know-how of producer.
Maize is grown all over the country especially in Iringa, Mbeya, Ruvuma, Rukwa, Tanga, Kilimanjaro, Kagera (Biharamulo), Morogoro and in Arusha/Manyara regions. 40% of the national maize production comes from 4 regions: Iringa, Mbeya, Ruvuma, Rukwa.
Small-scale farmers are dominating the maize production in Tanzania. They account for roughly 85 percent of total production. Medium and large-scale farms make up for 10
percent and 5 percent respectively. Although large and modern farms exist, agricultural production in Tanzania remains grounded on subsistence farming.
Maize is mostly grown under rain fed cropping systems that can be classified into two categories, namely; the short rains (Vuli) season that starts from September/October to January/February and the long rains (Masika) season from February/March to June/July.
Maize is available in large quantities from March to August and in smaller quantities during August to January.
The marketing of maize is done through private markets as well as through the mixed crop board, under the Ministry of Agriculture, Food Security and Cooperatives.
1.2 Rice Production
Rice is the second most important food and commercial crop in Tanzania after maize; it is among the major sources of employment, income and food security for Tanzania farming households.
Tanzania is the second largest producer of rice in Southern Africa after Madagascar with production level of 1,1 million tons (FAOSTAT, 2010- see below table). The rice cultivated area by 2012 was 720,000 hectares and the average yield per hectare from 2003-2012 is very low, 1.8 tons per ha.
About 71 % of the rice grown in Tanzania is produced under rain fed conditions; irrigated land presents 29 % of the total with most of it in small village level traditional irrigation systems.
Farmers grow a number of traditional varieties, these varieties have long maturity and yield is affected with irregular rainfall pattern and occurrence of pests which contribute to the yield decline.
Historically, rice has been categorized under the staple food crop rather than commercial/cash crop. However, in recent years with the rapid growth of cities and towns propelled by rapid population growth, the country has experienced enormous increase in rice demand. With negligible percentages of rice imports, most of rice demanded and consumed by the urban population is sourced from the rural rice producing areas that have stagnating production capacities. For this reason, rice has consequently been transformed into commercial crop.
Tanzania is endowed with more than 2 million hectares of lands suitable for rice production. Increase in yield are mainly caused by amount of farm inputs, technology and know how of producer. Rice production in Tanzania has been increasing from year to year due to priority has been provided by the government.
Table 2: Rice production and export yield trends
|Export in (MT)||7825||140||4158||78||1025||523||45|
Rice is mostly grown in Mwanza , Shinyanga (Bariadi & Maswa), Morogoro (Kilombero, Wami- Dakawe ); Tabora (Igunga), Kilimajaro (lower Moshi), Coast (Rufiji, Lindi), Mbeya (Mbarali, Kyela, Kapunga) and Rukwa Regions. 25% of the national rice production comes from 2 regions: Mbeya and Morogoro Rice production in Tanzania is mainly done by small and medium size rice farmers. However there have been a number of large scale mechanized rice schemes in the country (mainly for export). There has been an increase from year to year due to priority has been provided by the government. The marketing of rice is done through private markets as well as through the mixed crop board, under the Ministry of Agriculture, Food Security and Cooperatives.
2. Potential for Investment in Maize and Rice Sub-Sector.
2.1 Maize sub-sector
Therefore investing in the maize sub-sector should focus on:
2.2. Rice sub-sector
Therefore investing in the rice sub-sector should focus on:
3. Financing needs for the Maize and Rice sub-sector.
Entrepreneurs and small holder farmer groups may seek financial assistance for:
4. How can PASS help Farmers in the further expansion/Intensification of the Maize and Rice Sub- Sectors.